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ROOT SYSTEM:The underground part of the plant is called Root system.The underground main axis of the plant body is called Root.It is the prolongation of radicle of the embryo.It is positively geotropic or negatively phototropic.It is not differentiated into nodes & internodes. It is non-chlorophyllous or brown coloured.It does not possess leaves, buds, flowers and fruits.Lateral roots are produced from main axis in acropetal succession.Lateral roots are formed from inner region of the main axis(pericycle). So these are called ENDOGENOUS ORGANS.The small hair like outgrowth present on the tips of lateral roots and main axis are called ROOT HAIRS.Root hairs are exogenous organs.Root hairs are found in mesophytes and xerophytes and absent in hydrophytes.
The protective layer present around the root tip is called ROOT CAP.Root cap is made up of a dead tissue called CALYPTROGEN. Hence it is also called CALYPTRA.Root cap is well developed in mesophytes and xerophytes, absent in hydrophytes.In free floating hydrophytes root pockets are present.In angiosperms two types of root systems are present.They are
1.Tap root system2. Fibrous root system or Adventitious root system.
TAP ROOT SYSTEM:The central main axis is called Tap root.Tap root is formed by the prolongation of radicle of the embryo.Lateral roots are produced obliquely in all directions from tap root in acroptealsuccession.It is most commonly found in DICOTYLEDONS.
FIBROUS ROOT SYSTEM or ADVENTITIOUS ROOT SYSTEM:Tap root formed by the prolongation of radicle is short lived and degenarates after some time. See the differences between root cap and root pocket:
ROOT CAP:1.It is found in mesophytes and xerophytes. 2.It is made up of a dead tissue called calyptrogens. 3.It is a tight fitting structure.4.It can be regenerated.5.It provides protection to root tip and also involve in the penetration of the root into the soil.
ROOT POCKET:1.It is found in free floating hydrophytes. 2.it is not made up of calyptrogens. 3.it is loose fitting structure.4.it cannot be regenerated.5.It is involved in the buoyancy of the plant.
A bunch of new roots are produced from the base of the stem as fibres. So these roots are called fibrous roots and the root system is called fibrous root system.In this, roots are not formed from radicle. So these are also called Adventitious roots, and the root system is called Adventitious root system.It is most commonly found in MONOCOTYLEDONS.
FUNCTIONS OF ROOT SYSTEM:Roots provide anchorage to the plant by fixing it into the soil.Roots absorb water and minerals from the soil.Roots conduct the absorbed water and minerals to the shoot system.